Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment (EPIS) model (Conceptual Model of Evidence-based Practice Implementation in Public Service Sectors)

D and/or I:
information tooltip image The focus on dissemination and/or implementation activities. D-only focuses on an active approach of spreading evidence-based interventions to target audience via determined channels using planned strategies. D=I, D>I, and I>D means there is some focus on both dissemination and implementation. I-only focuses on process of putting to use or integrating evidence-based interventions within a setting.


Socio-Ecological Levels:
information tooltip image The level of the framework at which the model operates. Individual includes personal characteristics; Organization includes hospitals, service organizations, and factories; Community includes local government and neighborhoods; System includes hospital systems and government; Policy includes changes in policy.


Number of Times Cited:
information tooltip image The # of times the original publication for the model was cited as indicated by Google Scholar since 2016.



Field of Origin:
information tooltip image The field of study in which the model originated.

Public sector services

information tooltip image Whether the model is for the use of practitioners and/or researchers.


information tooltip image These are ratings given by users of the site.

information tooltip image Website.


information tooltip image The original publication(s) of the model.

Aarons GA, Hurlburt M, Horwitz SM. Advancing a conceptual model of evidence-based practice implementation in public service sectors. Admin Policy Mental Health 2011;38(1):4–23. Moullin JC, Dickson KS, Stadnick NA, Rabin B, Aarons GA. Systematic review of the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment (EPIS) framework. Implement Sci. 2019 Jan 5;14(1):1.

information tooltip image Citations of studies that have used the model as an outline for their study.

Aarons GA, Fettes DL, Sommerfeld DH, Palinkas LA: Mixed methods for implementation research: Application to evidence-based practice implementation and staff turnover in community-based organizations providing child welfare services. Child Maltreatment 2012, 17:67-79.

Aarons GA, Green AE, Trott E, Willging C, Torres EM, Ehrhart M, Roesch SC. The roles of system and organizational leadership in system-wide evidence-based intervention sustainment: A mixed-method study. Adm Policy Ment Hlth 2016, 43:991-1008.

Brookman-Frazee L, Chlebowski C, Suhrheinrich J, et al. Characterizing Shared and Unique Implementation Influences in Two Community Services Systems for Autism: Applying the EPIS Framework to Two Large-Scale Autism Intervention Community Effectiveness Trials. Adm Policy Ment Health. 2020;47(2):176-187. doi:10.1007/s10488-019-00931-4

Idalski Carcone A, Coyle K, Gurung S, et al. Implementation Science Research Examining the Integration of Evidence-Based Practices Into HIV Prevention and Clinical Care: Protocol for a Mixed-Methods Study Using the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, and Sustainment (EPIS) Model. JMIR Res Protoc. 2019;8(5):e11202. Published 2019 May 23. doi:10.2196/11202

Stadnick NA, Meza RD, Suhrheinrich J, et al. Leadership profiles associated with the implementation of behavioral health evidence-based practices for autism spectrum disorder in schools. Autism. 2019;23(8):1957-1968. doi:10.1177/1362361319834398

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