Kingdon’s Multiple-Streams Framework

Kingdon’s Multiple-Streams Framework

D and/or I:
The focus on dissemination and/or implementation activities. D-only focuses on an active approach of spreading evidence-based interventions to target audience via determined channels using planned strategies. D=I, D>I, and I>D means there is some focus on both dissemination and implementation. I-only focuses on process of putting to use or integrating evidence-based interventions within a setting.


Socio-Ecological Levels:
The level of the framework at which the model operates. Individual includes personal characteristics; Organization includes hospitals, service organizations, and factories; Community includes local government and neighborhoods; System includes hospital systems and government; Policy includes changes in policy.


Number of Times Cited:
The # of times the original publication for the model was cited as indicated by Google Scholar since 2016.


Field of Origin:
The field of study in which the model originated.


Whether the model is for the use of practitioners and/or researchers.

Practitioner and Researcher

The original publication(s) of the model.

Kingdon JW. Agendas, alternatives, and public policies. Boston: Little, Brown and Company; 1984. 

Citations of studies that have used the model as an outline for their study.

Zengarini N, Pilutti S, Marra M, Scavarda A, Stroscia M, Di Monaco R, Beccaria F, Costa G. Focusing urban policies on health equity: the role of evidence in stakeholder engagement in an Italian urban setting. Cities & Health 2021. Read this resource   View Case Study

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