Greenhalgh Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organizations

D and/or I:
information tooltip image The focus on dissemination and/or implementation activities. D-only focuses on an active approach of spreading evidence-based interventions to target audience via determined channels using planned strategies. D=I, D>I, and I>D means there is some focus on both dissemination and implementation. I-only focuses on process of putting to use or integrating evidence-based interventions within a setting.


Socio-Ecological Levels:
information tooltip image The level of the framework at which the model operates. Individual includes personal characteristics; Organization includes hospitals, service organizations, and factories; Community includes local government and neighborhoods; System includes hospital systems and government; Policy includes changes in policy.


Number of Times Cited:
information tooltip image The # of times the original publication for the model was cited as indicated by Google Scholar since 2016.


Field of Origin:
information tooltip image The field of study in which the model originated.

Health Services Research

information tooltip image Whether the model is for the use of practitioners and/or researchers.


information tooltip image These are ratings given by users of the site.

information tooltip image The original publication(s) of the model.

Greenhalgh T, Robert G, Macfarlane F, Bate P, Kyriakidou O. Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organizations: Systematic Review and Recommendations. Milbank Q. 2004 Dec; 82(4): 581–629.

information tooltip image Citations of studies that have used the model as an outline for their study.

Byambaa, T., Janes, C., Takaro, T. et al. Putting Health Impact Assessment into practice through the lenses of diffusion of innovations theory: a review. Environ Dev Sustain 17, 23-40 (2015).

George S, Hamilton A, Baker RS. How Do Low-Income Urban African Americans and Latinos Feel about Telemedicine? A Diffusion of Innovation Analysis. Int J Telemed Appl. 2012;2012:715194. doi: 10.1155/2012/715194.

Greenhalgh T, Stramer K, Bratan T, Byrne E, Mohammad Y, Russell J. Introduction of shared electronic records: multi-site case study using diffusion of innovation theory. BMJ. 2008 Oct 23;337:a1786. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a1786.

Macfarlane F, Greenhalgh T, Humphrey C, Hughes J, Butler C, Pawson R. A new workforce in the making? A case study of strategic human resource management in a whole-system change effort in healthcare. J Health Organ Manag. 2011;25(1):55-72. doi: 10.1108/14777261111116824.

Paina L, Namazzi G, Tetui M, Mayora C, Kananura RM, Kiwanuka SN, Waiswa P, Mutebi A, Ekirapa-Kiracho E. Applying the model of diffusion of innovations to understand facilitators for the implementation of maternal and neonatal health programmes in rural Uganda. Global Health. 2019 Jun 13;15(1):38. doi: 10.1186/s12992-019-0483-9

Sugarhood P, Wherton J, Procter R, Hinder S, Greenhalgh T. Technology as system innovation: a key informant interview study of the application of the diffusion of innovation model to telecare. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2014 Jan;9(1):79-87. doi: 10.3109/17483107.2013.823573.

Valaitis R, MacDonald M, Kothari A, O’Mara L, Regan S, Garcia J, Murray N, Manson H, Peroff-Johnston N, Bursey G, Boyko J. Moving towards a new vision: implementation of a public health policy intervention. BMC Public Health. 2016 May 17;16:412. doi: 10.1186/s12889-016-3056-3.

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