Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary 2

Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary 2

D and/or I:
The focus on dissemination and/or implementation activities. D-only focuses on an active approach of spreading evidence-based interventions to target audience via determined channels using planned strategies. D=I, D>I, and I>D means there is some focus on both dissemination and implementation. I-only focuses on process of putting to use or integrating evidence-based interventions within a setting.


Socio-Ecological Levels:
The level of the framework at which the model operates. Individual includes personal characteristics; Organization includes hospitals, service organizations, and factories; Community includes local government and neighborhoods; System includes hospital systems and government; Policy includes changes in policy.


Number of Times Cited:
The # of times the original publication for the model was cited as indicated by Google Scholar since 2016.


Field of Origin:
The field of study in which the model originated.

Health Services Research

Whether the model is for the use of practitioners and/or researchers.


Name of the construct developed by classifying/aligning the elements abstracted from models.

Adopter/implementer/decision maker characteristics, Compatibility, Context – Inner setting, Evaluation, Innovation characteristics, Outcomes – Health/QOL/Satisfaction/Clinical


The original publication(s) of the model.

Loudon K, Treweek S, Sullivan F, Donnan P, Thorpe KE, Zwarenstein M. The PRECIS-2 tool: designing trials that are fit for purpose BMJ 2015;350:h2147 PRECIS-2 website Thorpe KE, Zwarenstein M, Oxman AD, et al. A pragmatic-explanatory continuum indicator summary (PRECIS): a tool to help trial designers. J Clin Epidemiol 2009;62:464-75. Loudon K, Zwarenstein M, Sullivan F, et al. Making clinical trials more relevant: improving and validating the PRECIS tool for matching trial design decisions to trial purpose. Trials 2013;14:115.

Citations of studies that have used the model as an outline for their study.

Forbes G, Loudon K, Treweek S, Taylor SJC, Eldridge S. Understanding the applicability of results from primary care trials: lessons learned from applying PRECIS-2. J Clin Epidemiol. 2017 Oct;90:119-126.

Lipman PD, Loudon K, Dluzak L, Moloney R, Messner D, Stoney CM. Framing the conversation: use of PRECIS-2 ratings to advance understanding of pragmatic trial design domains. Trials. 2017 Nov 10;18(1):532.

Loudon K, Treweek S, Sullivan F, Donnan P, Thorpe KE, Zwarenstein M. The PRECIS-2 tool: designing trials that are fit for purpose. BMJ. 2015 May 8;350:h2147. doi: 10.1136/bmj.h2147.

Zwarenstein M, Howie A. Blinding, pragmatism, and the PRECIS-2 tool for designing and assessing randomized trials. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2021 Jan 4. doi: 10.1007/s00228-020-03078-6.

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