Precede-Proceed Model

Precede-Proceed Model

D and/or I:
The focus on dissemination and/or implementation activities. D-only focuses on an active approach of spreading evidence-based interventions to target audience via determined channels using planned strategies. D=I, D>I, and I>D means there is some focus on both dissemination and implementation. I-only focuses on process of putting to use or integrating evidence-based interventions within a setting.


Socio-Ecological Levels:
The level of the framework at which the model operates. Individual includes personal characteristics; Organization includes hospitals, service organizations, and factories; Community includes local government and neighborhoods; System includes hospital systems and government; Policy includes changes in policy.


Number of Times Cited:
The # of times the original publication for the model was cited as indicated by Google Scholar since 2016.



Field of Origin:
The field of study in which the model originated.


Name of the construct developed by classifying/aligning the elements abstracted from models.

Barriers and facilitators, Communication channels, Context – Inner setting, Innovation characteristics, Outcomes – Health/QOL/Satisfaction/Clinical, Pre-implementation, Stakeholders

The original publication(s) of the model.

Green LW, Kreuter MW. Health program planning : an educational and ecological approach. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005.

Citations of studies that have used the model as an outline for their study.

Curran GM, Mukherjee S, Allee E, Owen RR. A process for developing an implementation intervention: QUERI Series. Implement Sci. 2008 Mar 19;3:17. doi: 10.1186/1748-5908-3-17.

Gary TL, Bone LR, Hill MN, Levine DM, McGuire M, Saudek C, Brancati FL. Randomized controlled trial of the effects of nurse case manager and community health worker interventions on risk factors for diabetes-related complications in urban African Americans. Prev Med. 2003 Jul;37(1):23-32. doi: 10.1016/s0091-7435(03)00040-9

Guidotti TL, Ford L, Wheeler M. The Fort McMurray Demonstration Project in Social Marketing: theory, design, and evaluation. Am J Prev Med. 2000 Feb;18(2):163-9. doi: 10.1016/s0749-3797(99)00133-6.

Joshi DD, Poudyal PM, Jimba M, Mishra PN, Neave LA, Maharjan M. Controlling Taenia solium in Nepal using the PRECEDE-PROCEED model. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2001;32 Suppl 2:94-7

Lucas PJ, Ingram J, Redmond NM, Cabral C, Turnbull SL, Hay AD. Development of an intervention to reduce antibiotic use for childhood coughs in UK primary care using critical synthesis of multi-method research. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2017 Dec 28;17(1):175. doi: 10.1186/s12874-017-0455-9

Ottoson JM, Green LW. Community outreach: from measuring the difference to making a difference with health information. J Med Libr Assoc. 2005 Oct;93(4 Suppl):S49-56.

Tramm R, McCarthy A, Yates P. Using the Precede-Proceed Model of Health Program Planning in breast cancer nursing research. J Adv Nurs. 2012 Aug;68(8):1870-80. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05888.x.

[Health Equity] Ghahremani L, Azizi M, Moemenbellah-Fard MD, Ghaem H. Malaria preventive behaviors among housewives in suburbs of Bandar-Abbas City, south of Iran: interventional design based on PRECEDE model. Pathog Glob Health. 2019 Feb;113(1):32-38. doi: 10.1080/20477724.2019.1583847.

[Health Equity] Larson EL, Cohn EG, Meyer DD, Boden-Albala B. Consent administrator training to reduce disparities in research participation. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2009 Mar;41(1):95-103. doi: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.2009.01256.x.

[Health Equity] Olanrewaju, Olubunmi & Ogungbenle, Elizabeth & Adewunmi, Jumoke. (2019). Examining the Impact of Health Determinants on Health Outcomes in Louisiana, USA. doi: 10.7176/JHMN/68-06.

[Health Equity] Quandt SA, Arcury TA, Austin CK, Cabrera LF. Preventing occupational exposure to pesticides: using participatory research with latino farmworkers to develop an intervention. J Immigr Health. 2001 Apr;3(2):85-96. doi: 10.1023/A:1009513916713.

[Health Equity] Yamada T, Chen CC, Murata C, Hirai H, Ojima T, Kondo K, Harris JR 3rd. Access disparity and health inequality of the elderly: unmet needs and delayed healthcare. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015 Feb 3;12(2):1745-72. doi: 10.3390/ijerph120201745.

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