Push-Pull Capacity Model

Push-Pull Capacity Model

D and/or I:
The focus on dissemination and/or implementation activities. D-only focuses on an active approach of spreading evidence-based interventions to target audience via determined channels using planned strategies. D=I, D>I, and I>D means there is some focus on both dissemination and implementation. I-only focuses on process of putting to use or integrating evidence-based interventions within a setting.


Socio-Ecological Levels:
The level of the framework at which the model operates. Individual includes personal characteristics; Organization includes hospitals, service organizations, and factories; Community includes local government and neighborhoods; System includes hospital systems and government; Policy includes changes in policy.


Number of Times Cited:
The # of times the original publication for the model was cited as indicated by Google Scholar since 2016.



Field of Origin:
The field of study in which the model originated.

Physical activity

Name of the construct developed by classifying/aligning the elements abstracted from models.

Goals, Context – Inner setting, Process, Stakeholders

The original publication(s) of the model.

Green LW, Orleans CT, Ottoson JM, Cameron R, Pierce JP, Bettinghaus EP. Inferring strategies for disseminating physical activity policies, programs, and practices from the successes of tobacco control. Am J Prev Med 2006;31(4S):S66–S81. Kerner J, Rimer B, Emmons K. Introduction to the special section on dissemination: Dissemination research and research dissemination: How can we close the gap? Health Psychol 2005;24:443–6. Kerner JF. Knowledge translation versus knowledge integration: A finder's perspective. J Contin Educ Health Prof 2006 Winter;26:72–80. Kerner JF, Guirguis-Blake J, Hennessy KD, Brounstein PJ, Vinson C, Schwartz RH, et al. Translating research into improved outcomes in comprehensive cancer control. Cancer Causes and Control 2005;16:27–40.

Citations of studies that have used the model as an outline for their study.

Dearing JW, Kreuter MW. Designing for diffusion: How can we increase uptake of cancer communication innovations? Patient Educ Couns 2010;81S:S100-S110.

Norton WE. An exploratory study to examine intentions to adopt an evidence-based HIV linkage-to-care intervention among state health department AIDS directors in the United States. Implement Sci. 2012 Apr 2;7:27. doi: 10.1186/1748-5908-7-27

Orleans CT. Increasing the demand for and use of effective smoking-cessation treatments: reaping the full health benefits of tobacco-control science and policy gains—in our lifetime. Am J Prev Med 2007;33(6):S340-S348.

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