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Seminal Publications

Peer reviewed manuscripts:

Tabak RG, Khoong EC, Chambers DA, Brownson RC. Bridging research and practice: models for dissemination and implementation research. Am J Prev Med. 2012;43(3):337-50.

Theories and frameworks (hereafter called models) enhance dissemination and implementation (D&I) research by making the spread of evidence-based interventions more likely. This work organizes and synthesizes these models by (1) developing an inventory of models used in D&I research; (2) synthesizing this information; and (3) providing guidance on how to select a model to inform study design and execution.

Mitchell SA, Fisher CA, Hastings CE, Silverman LB, Wallen GR. A thematic analysis of theoretical models for translational science in nursing: Mapping the field. Nurs Outlook. 2010;58(6): 287-300.

The quantity and diversity of conceptual models in translational science may complicate rather than advance the use of theory. This paper offers a comparative thematic analysis of the models available to inform knowledge development, transfer, and utilization. This analysis distinguishes the contributions made by leaders and researchers at each phase in the process of discovery, development, and service delivery. It also informs the selection of models to guide activities in knowledge translation.

Wilson PM, Petticrew M, Calnan MW, Nazareth I. Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks. Implementation Science 2010, 5:91

Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. This paper is based on a systematic scoping review of any conceptual/organizing frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity.

Nilsen P. Making sense of implementation theories, models and frameworks. Implementation Science 2015;10:53.

Theoretical approaches used in implementation science have three overarching aims: describing and/or guiding the process of translating research into practice (process models); understanding and/or explaining what influences implementation outcomes (determinant frameworks, classic theories, implementation theories); and evaluating implementation (evaluation frameworks). This article proposes five categories of theoretical approaches to achieve three overarching aims and organizes existing D&I models under these categories.

Nilsen P, Bernhardsson S. Context matters in implementation science: a scoping review of determinant frameworks that describe contextual determinants for implementation outcomes. BMC Health Services Research 2019;19:189.

The relevance of context in implementation science is reflected in the numerous theories, frameworks, models and taxonomies that have been proposed to analyse determinants of implementation (in this paper referred to as determinant frameworks). This scoping review aimed to investigate and map how determinant frameworks used in implementation science were developed, what terms are used for contextual determinants for implementation, how the context is conceptualized, and which context dimensions that can be discerned.

Birken SA, Powell BJ, Shea CM, Hainers ER, Kirk MA, Leeman J, Rohweder C, Damschroder L, Presseau J. Criteria for selecting implementation science theories and frameworks: results from an international survey. Implementation Science 2017;12:124.

This paper describes initial criteria for the selection of implementation theories based on an investigation of which theories implementation scientists use, how they use theories, and the criteria used to select theories.

Strifler L, Cardoso R, McGowan J, Cogo E, Nincic V, Khan PA, Scott A, Ghassemi M, MacDonald H, Lai Y, Treister V, Tricco AC, Straus SE. Scoping review identifies significant number of knowledge translation theories, models, and frameworks with limited use. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 2018;100:92-102.

This paper provides the results of a scoping review of knowledge translation (KT) theories, models, and frameworks that have been used to guide dissemination or implementation of evidence-based interventions targeted to prevention and/or management of cancer or other chronic diseases.


Rycroft-Malone J, Bucknall T. (Eds.) Model and frameworks for implementing evidence-based practice: Linking evidence to action. Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.

The objective of this book is to consider the use of theory, models, and frameworks in the implementation of evidence-based practice, provide a collection of models and frameworks written by their developers, and offer a review and synthesis of these.

Online resources:

D&I is T-CaST: an implementation theory comparison and selection tool

Implementation researchers can use this tool to assess the utilization of one or more theory, model, or framework (TMF) in a particular project. More specifically, the tool can be used for: a.) Considering the characteristics of TMFs most important for the project; b.) Presenting characteristics to stakeholders to identify their priorities; c.) Evaluating the ways in which one or more TMF meets the needs of the project; d.) Comparing potential TMFs to select the best fit for the project; e.) Identifying ways in which multiple TMFs can complement one another to address all important criteria; f.) Communicating to various stakeholders reasons why a TMF was selected; g.) Increasing transparency related to TMF selection and use in reporting (manuscripts, grants, etc.)

QUERI Implementation Roadmap: Supporting More Rapid Innovation and Sustainability in a Learning Health Care System

The goal of VA’s Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) is to improve Veteran health by accelerating the adoption of research findings in routine care. The QUERI Implementation Roadmap was updated from its original pipeline to provide a comprehensive approach to more rapidly implement effective interventions into routine care. The Roadmap is a tool that can support VHA strategic efforts to support a learning health system through the scale-up, spread, and sustainability of effective policies and practices to address the highest-priority needs of Veterans. Intended audience: implementation and clinical researchers, and VA clinical providers and operational leaders involved in research or quality improvement initiatives.

Relevant Websites

ACCORDS Dissemination and Implementation Program

Dissemination and Implementation Research Core at the Institute of Clinical and Translation Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis

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